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Data tables are a built-in tool in Excel that allow you to "stress test" spreadsheet model outputs by automatically recalculating values of the formula for an output value under various assumptions. Data Tables allow you test "what-if" scenarios independently of the base case model. For example you might want to test the impact of changing price or cost on profit.
As the name suggests a two variable or two way data tables allow you the change two inputs and examine the impact on outcomes. Results can be graphed or have conditional formatting applied for easy interpretation.