Using the T.TEST Function to Conduct Hypothesis Tests

The T.TEST function provides a quick almost back of the envelope method of testing hypotheses involving two samples. It can be used to test:

Paired samples, sometimes referred to as matched samples or repeated measures

Independent samples, unknown variances but considered equal

Independent samples, unknown and unequal variances

The function returns the probability that the two sample means come from the same population. This probability is more commonly referred to as p-value, and also commonly interpreted from the perspective of the altenative hypothesis. That is the probability that the test results are due to random chance. The p-value can also be defined as the lowest level of significance the null hypothesis can be rejected at, and so it can be directly compared to α to determine whether or not the null hypothesis should be rejected. Finally, p-value can also be defined as the probability of a type I error

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